viernes, 13 de agosto de 2010

El programa se acabo, ahora a casa!

Hola amigos y companeros, espero de corazon que todos hallan podido disfrutar su verano, el cual ciertamente ya se termino, pero todavia estamos despidiendo...

Ya que sentia las ganas de compartir mas acerca de la experiencia aqui en Albany (la cual por cierto hoy dejo para volver a casa, la UDLAP) estoy posteando una vez mas.

Ahora que el programa esta terminado, pienso que el tiempo no paso tan rapido, pues el trabajo se sintio en todo su esplendor, ha sido una nueva y constructiva experiencia!

Como les habia contado, el nombre de mi proyecto (a largo plazo) es "Fabrication and Functionalization of Electrospun Nanofibers for Real-Time Measurements in Bioreactors: Glucose and Lactate". Ahora, al empezar trabjando en este proyecto, el centro de atencion fue trabajar con Glucosa como analito o molecula de interes en las aplicaciones del sensor, entonces,  a sensar Glucosa. ;-)


El proyecto es una sinergia de bioquimica y ciencia de materiales, ambas partes se necesitan; por ello tuve que trabajar con dos profesores, Susan Sharfstein y Anand Gadre, quienes investigan en Bioquimica y Fisica de polimeros respectivamente; esto es con el objetivo de fabricar un biosensor en nanoescala que pueda sensar concentraciones de glucosa; para comenzar nuestro trabajo se realizo en sistemas in vitro. El reconocimiento y sensado de moleculas de interes biologico como la glucosa inicia con una reaccion bioquimica, muy interesante y no tan compleja; en este caso,como se pueden imaginar, la glucosa se oxida en presencia de oxigeno en el ambiente, lo que genera una primera senal, una senal bioquimica. Bien, la parte importante es poder facilitar y reconocer esa reaccion bioquimica, y es ahi donde entra a tallar con mucha importancia el uso de la enzima Glocusa Oxidasa (GOX), la cual tambien se conoce con otros nombres como GOD, GODx y similares. Lo que la enzime puede hacer en esa reaccion es importante, el proceso aqui se denomina biocatalisis, en la cual la enzima hospeda a la molecula de glucosa ayudando a esta a conseguir la energia que necesita para iniciar su reaccion con oxigeno mucho mas rapido. En biocatalisis, esto se denomida binding energy, la cual es una energia extra, lo cual hace diferente a esta biocatalisis de la catalisis comun en quimica. Al mismo tiempo, la reaccion entre oxigeno y glucosa en presencia de GOX, conduce a la formacion de peroxido de hidrogeno ( H2O2 ) que queda inicialmente disuelto en el sistema acuoso con el que se trabaja. Producto de la oxidacion de la glucosa, se forma tambien gluconolacton y posteriormente este se transforma en acido gluconico al reaccionar con agua. Ciertamente, este fenomeno es tambien una ruta muy utilizada para determinar la concentracion de glucosa, ya que la formacion de acido gluconico altera el pH y se usa dicho principio en sensores basados en pH.

Sin embargo, el objetivo trazado es determinar la concentracion mediante otro tipo de tecnicas, tecnicas electroquimicas, y mas especficamente, usar una celda electrolitica en la cual podamos aprovechar la produccion de ( H2O2 ) mencionada previamente.

Bien, si se hace pasar corriente a travez de una solucion conteniendo glucosa y acercar la enzyme para facilitar la reaccion via biocatalisis, entonces, las moleculas de peroxido de hidrogeno formadas pueden ser descompuestas en oxigeno y 2 iones hidrogeno acompanados de un par de electroncitos, los cuales pueden incrementar el flujo de corriente. Justamente ese marcado cambio en la corriente es lo que se utiliza para poder identificar y determinar la concentracion de glucosa.

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